- A guiding principle is a recommendation that guides an organization in all circumstances, regardless of changes in its goals, strategies, type of work, or management structure.
- A guiding principle is universal and enduring. They should never change within an organization.
- The guiding principles support successful actions and good decisions of all types and at all levels.
- They can be used to guide organizations in their work as they adopt a service management approach and adapt ITIL guidance to their own specific needs and circumstances.
- The guiding principles encourage and support organizations in continual improvement at all levels.
- The guiding principles can be combined when making a decision by reviewing each guiding principle to decide how relevant it is to the specific decision
- Organizations should consider how the guiding principles interact with each other
1) Focus on value
Everything that the organization does needs to map, directly or indirectly, to value for the stakeholders. The focus on value principle encompasses many perspectives, including the experience of customers and users and their loyalty. It also concerned with consumer's revenue and growth
It includes focusing on value during normal operational activities and in every step of any improvement initiative.
Considerations for applying the principle:
- Who is the service consumer?
- The consumer’s perspectives of value : Why the consumers need the service? How services help them to achieve their goals? Costs? Risks?
- The customer experience : Customer Experience (CX) can be defined as the entirety of the interactions a customer has with an organization and its products. This experience can determine how the customer feels about the organization and its products and services.
2) Start where you are
- Don’t start from scratch and build something new without considering what is
already available to be leveraged (it
recommends assessing the current state and deciding what can be reused)
- There is likely
to be great deal in the current services, processes, programs, projects, and
people that can be used to create the desired outcome
- When deciding to
improve a service, we should start by considering existing information
- The current
state should be investigated and observed directly to make sure it is
- Observation should be supported by measurement.
- The use of
measurement is important in this principle. Measurement
should, however, support but not replace what is observed, as over-reliance
on data analytics and reporting can unintentionally introduce biases and risks
in decision making
iteratively with feedback
- Do not attempt to do everything at once. (Resist the temptation to do
everything at once)
- Even huge
initiatives must be accomplished iteratively.
By organizing work into smaller, manageable
sections that can be executed and completed in timely manner, it is easier
to maintain a sharper focus on each effort.
- Using feedback
before, throughout, and after each iteration will ensure that actions are
focused and appropriate, even if circumstances change.
- Each iteration should be continually re-evaluated based on
- it helps to ensure that each improvement effort has more focus and is easier to maintain
- Working in a timeboxed, iterative manner with feedback loops embedded into the process
- Greater flexibility
- Faster responsesto customer and business needs
- The ability to discover and respond to failure earlier
- An overall improvement in quality
and promote visibility
- Working together across boundaries and involve the right people in the correct
roles to produce results that have greater buy-in, more relevance to
objectives, and increased likelihood of long-term success (because better information is available for decision-making)
- Achieving objectives requires information, understanding, and trust. Work and consequences should be made visible, hidden agendas avoided,
and information shared to the greatest degree possible.
- It requires the identification and managing of all stakeholder groups in order to establish more robust communication across the staff
- Increasing collaboration and visibility for the improvement
can help to reduce resistance to a planned improvement
- Insufficient visibility of work leads to poor
decision-making. To avoid this, the organization needs to perform such critical
analysis activities as:
- understanding the flow of work in progress
- dentifying bottlenecks, as well as excess capacity
- uncovering waste.
5) Think and work holistically
- No service, or element used to provide a service, stands
alone. The outcomes achieved by the service provider and
the service consumer will suffer unless the organization works on the service as a whole,
not just on its parts.
- It is PRIMARILY concerned with end-to-end
- uses the four dimensions of service management to ensure coordination of all aspects of an improvement initiative
- Results are
delivered to internal and external customers through the effective and
efficient management and dynamic integration of information, technology,
organization, people, practices, partners, and agreements which should all be
coordinated to provide a defined value.
6) Keep it
simple and practical
- If a process, service, action or metric fails to provide a
value or produce a useful outcome, eliminate it.
- In a process or procedure , use the minimum
number of steps necessary to accomplish the
- Always use
outcome-based thinking to produce practical solutions that deliver results
- Only add controls and metrics when they are needed.
- Services and
processes should NOT provide a solution for
7) Optimize and automate
- Resources of all types, particularly HR, should be used to
their best effect.Eliminate
anything that is truly wasteful and use technology to achieve whatever it is
- Human intervention should only happen where it is contributes value.
- Automation frees human resources for more complex activities
- Before an activity can be effectively automated, it should be
to whatever degree is possible and reasonable.
- The starting point of optimization is understanding the vision and
objectives of the organization
- This principle recommends using technology only when it
provides a clear benefit
- It considers how the steps of a process can be performed as
efficiently as possible
process of improving and increasing the efficiency of a process or service.
- Automation: use
of technology to perform a step or series of steps correctly and consistently
with limited or no human involvement